• Muhammad Jamhari Darhany SMA Unggulan CT Foundation Deli Serdang
Keywords: Critical thinking skills, argument mapping-based guided inquiry, classroom action research, human excretory system


This study aims to analyze the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills in the features of focus, supporting reasons, reasoning, organization, conventions and integration through the implementation of argument mapping-based guided inquiry learning models. Type of this research is classroom action research, a systematic inquiry with the goal of informing practice in particular situation which adopted Kemmis and McTaggart’s models which follows the cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. It was conducted in class XI-Avenzoar of SMA Unggulan CT Foundation Deli Serdang in the academic year 2019/2020. The sampling technique was done by total sampling consisting of 24 students with a composition of 6 boys and 18 girls. The instrument used the essay tests adapted from Finken based on Illinois Critical Thinking Essay Test and argument mapping based on van Gelder on the concept of human excretory system. The data collection methods were included the interview, observation and documentation. The whole data was employed by descriptive analysis developed by Miles and Huberman which includes three concurrent activities, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion drawing. The results showed that the features of focus and reasoning from critical thinking skills tests in Cycle I obtained the highest score of all, while the features of supporting reasons and conventions obtained the lowest score and showed no improvement at all. Meanwhile in Cycle II, the features of focus and reasoning increased significantly and obtained the highest score as well. However, the feature of supporting reasons increased simultaneously but conventions still remained. It definitely showed that there was a significant improvement between groups in Cycle I (65.42) and Cycle II (80.21) from the average score of students’ critical thinking skills through their argument mapping grading. The aspects of argument mapping, such as claims, reasons, objections, rebuttals and debates improved well between these cycles. It was strongly suggested that argument mapping could enhance students’ critical thinking skills in Biology. From the results and discussion, it could be concluded that the implementation of the argument mapping-based guided inquiry learning models on the concept of human excretory system had a very positive and significant improvement on students’ critical thinking skills. The students’ critical thinking skills were in the high category.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] Piaget, J. Success and Understanding. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1978.
[2] Vygotsky, L.S. Mind In Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1978.
[3] National Academy of Sciences. National Science Education Standards, National Academy Press: Washington, DC. 1996.
[4] Dreyfus, A., E. Jungwirth. Students’ Perceptions of the Logical Structure of Curricular as Compared with Everyday Contexts–Study of Critical Thinking Skills’, Science Education, 64(3): 309–321. 1980.
[5] Jungwirth, E., A. Dreyfus. Diagnosing the Attainment of Basic Inquiry Skills: The 100-year Old Quest for Critical Thinking. Journal of Biological Education, 24(1): 42-49. 1990.
[6] Garnett, J.P., K.G. Tobin. Reasoning Patterns of Preservice Elementary and Middle School Science Teachers, Science and Education, 68(5): 621–631. 1984.
[7] Lawson, A.E. The Nature of Advanced Reasoning and Science Instruction, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 19(9): 743–759. 1982.
[8] Lawson, A.E. A Review of Research on Formal Reasoning and Science Teaching, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22(7): 569–617. 1985.
[9] Obed, N. Investigating the Nature of Formal Reasoning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(10): 1067–1081. 1997.
[10] Friedler, Y., R. Nachmias., M.C. Linn. Learning Scientific Reasoning Skills in Microcomputer Laboratories, Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(2): 173–191. 1990.
[11] Moll, M.B., R.D. Allen. Developing Critical Thinking Skills in Biology. Journal of College Science Teaching, 12(2): 95-98. 1982.
[12] Novak, J.D., J.M. Detloff. Developing Critical Thinking Skills in Community College Students, Journal of College Science Teaching, 18(2): 22–25. 1989.
[13] Statkiewicz, W.R., R.D. Allen. Practice Exercises to Develop Critical Thinking Skills, Journal of College Science Teaching, 12(4): 262–266. 1983.
[14] Zohar, A., P. Tamir. Incorporating Critical Thinking into a Regular High School Biology Curriculum, School Science and Mathematics, 93(3): 136–140. 1993.
[15] Zoller, U. Scaling Up of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills-Oriented College Chemistry Teaching, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(5): 583–596. 1999.
[16] Tittle, P. Critical Thinking: An Appeal to Reason. London: Routledge. 2011.
[17] Black, B. It’s Not Like Teaching Other Subjects–The Challenges of Introducing Critical Thinking as Level in England, Research Matters 10: A Cambridge Assessment Publication, 10(1): 2–8. 2010.
[18] Wiyanto., S.E. Nugroho., Hartono. The Scientific Approach Learning: How Prospective Science Teachers Understand about questioning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 824(1). 2017.
[19] Aristianti, E., H. Susanto., P. Marwoto. Implementasi Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing Terhadap Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah dan Komunikasi Ilmiah Siswa SMA. Unnes Physics Education Journal, 7(1): 67-73. 2018.
[20] Habibah, F.N., A.T. Widodo., Jumaeri. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Kontekstual Berpendekatan Inkuiri Terbimbing Materi KSP. Journal of Innovative Science Education, 6(1): 66-74. 2017.
[21] Budiarti, S., M. Nuswowati., E. Cahyono. Guided Inquiry Berbantuan E-Modul untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis. Journal of Innovative Science Education, 5(2): 144-151. 2016.
[22] Astuti, H.D., S. Linuwih., P. Marwoto. Keefektifan Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing Dilengkapi Penilaian Portofolio untuk Meningkatkan Berpikir Kritis Siswa SMA. Unnes Physics Education Journal, 5(1): 82-88. 2016.
[23] Usdalifat, S., A. Ramadhan., S.M. Suleman. Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis dan Keterampilan Proses Siswa Pada Mata Pelajaran IPA Biologi Kelas VII SMP Negeri 19 Palu. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Tadulako, 5(3): 1-10. 2016.
[24] Banchi, H., R. Bell. The Many Levels of Inquiry. Science and Children. Journal Science and Children. University of Virginia, 2(2): 26-29. 2008.
[25] Dewi, N. L., N. Dantes., I.W. Sadia. Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing Terhadap Sikap Ilmiah dan Hasil Belajar IPA. e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, 3(1): 1-13. 2013.
[26] Zion, M., R. Mendelovici. Moving from Structured to Open Inquiry: Challenges and Limits. Science Education International, 23(4): 383-399. 2012.
[27] Matthew, B.M., I.O. Kenneth. A Study on the Effects of Guided Inquiry Teaching Method on Students Achievement in Logic. International Researchers, 2(1): 134-140. 2013.
[28] Llewellyn, D. Teaching High School Science Through Inquiry and Argumentation. USA: Saga Publication. 2013.
[29] Novak, J.D., D.B. Gowin. Learning How to Learn. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 1984.
[30] Buzan, T., B. Buzan. The Mind Map Book: How to Use Radiant Thinking to Maximize Your Brain’s Untapped Potential. New York: Plume. 1993.
[31] van Gelder, T.J. Argument Mapping. In Encyclopedia of the Mind, edited by H. Pashler. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2015.
[32] Davies, W.M. Concept Mapping, Mind Mapping and Argument Mapping: What are the Differences and Do They Matter? Avail¬able from: 2010.
[33] Horton, P.B., A.A. McConney., M. Gallo., A.L. Woods., G.J. Senn., D. Hamelin. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Concept Mapping as an Instructional Tool. Science Education, 77(1): 95-111. 1993.
[34] Nesbit, J.C., O.O. Adescope. Learning with Concept and Knowledge Maps: A Meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 76(3): 413-448. 2006
[35] Able, W.M., M. Freeze. Evaluation of Concept Mapping in an Associate Degree Nursing Program. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(9): 356-364. 2006.
[36] Briscoe, C., S.U. LaMaster. Meaningful Learning in College Biology Through Concept Mapping. The American Biology Teacher, 53(4): 214-219. 1991.
[37] Kinchin, I.M. If concept mapping is so helpful to learning biology, why aren’t we all doing it? International Journal of Science Education, 23(12): 1257-1269. 2001.
[38] Miller, H.R., K.S. McNeal., B.E. Herbert. Inquiry in the Physical Geology Classroom: Supporting Students’ Conceptual Model Development. Journal of Geography in Higher Education. 34(4): 595-615. 2010.
[39] Drake, K.N., D. Long. A Comparative Study of Experiential Learning in Two Fourth-Grade Classrooms. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 21(1): 1-16. 2009.
[40] Varma, T., M.J. Volkmann., D.L. Hanuscin. Pre-service Elementary Teachers’ Field Experiences in Classrooms Led by Science Specialists. Manuscript submitted for publication. Journal of Science Teacher Education. 2009.
[41] van Gelder, T.J. The Rationale for Rationale. Law, Probability and Risk, 6(1): 23-42. 2007.
[42] Austhink. Austhink Argument Mapping Tutorial. Available from:¬als/Tutorial_1/index.htm. 2008.
[43] Stalheim-Smith, A. Focusing on Active, Meaningful Learning. Idea Paper 34. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Center for Faculty Evaluation and Development. 1998.
[44] Novak, J.D., A.J. Canas. Theoretical Origins of Concept Maps, How to Construct Them and Uses in Education. Journal of Reflecting Education, 3(1): 29-42. 2007.
[45] Liu, M., J.J. Lee., C. Linn. The Effect of Science-Technology-Society Teaching on Students’ Attitudes Toward Science, Problem Solving and Certain Aspects of Creative and Critical Thinking Abilities. International Journal of Science Education, 29(11): 1315-1327. 2010.
[46] Heinze-Fry, J.A., J.D. Novak. Concept Mapping Brings Long-term Movement Toward Meaningful Learning. Science Education, 74(4): 461-472. 1990.
[47] Huai, H. Concept Mapping in Learning Biology: Theoretical Review on Cognitive and Learning Styles. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 8(3/4): 325-340. 1997.
[48] Mason, C.L. Concept Mapping: A Tool to Develop Reflective Science Instruction. Science Education, 76(1): 51-63. 1992.
[49] Angelo, T.A., K.P. Cross. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers (2nd Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 1993.
[50] Kemmis, S., R. McTaggart. The Action Research Planner. Victoria: Deakin University Press. 1982.
[51] Finken., R.H. Ennis. Illinois Critical Thinking Essay Test. Illinois Critical Thinking Project. Department of Educational Policy Studies University of Illinois. 1993.
[52] Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. Qualitative Data Analysis, A Method Sourcebook, Edition 3. USA: Sage Publications. 2014.
[53] Looi, C.K. Interactive Learning Environments for Promoting Inquiry Learning, Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 27(2): 3-22. 1998.
[54] Coffman, M., L. Riggs. The Virtual Vee Map. Journal of College Science Teaching. Vol. 36 No. 1. 2006.
Abstract views: 129 , PDF downloads: 78